Atividade final de Língua Inglesa V - até dia 22 de Janeiro de 2014
1. Underline the Subject and Finite elements in each of the following clauses. Then (a) make the declarative clauses negative; (b) convert the negative declaratives into polar negative interrogatives (main clause only); (c) underline the Subject and new Finite elements (20).
(a) He tells everyone his life history every time he meets them.
(b) Bill took on a great deal of responsibility in his previous job.
2. Identify the clause type and suggest the possible force each utterance has (20).
(a) Is there any coffee?
(c) Could you tell me the way to the nearest Tube station, please?
(d) What could I say?
(e) She didn’t leave a message, then?
3. Observe the following interaction:
Lord Longhorn to his butler: Do you mind taking this book back to the library?
(handing over the book)
Butler: Yes sir (taking book and leaving)
(a) What is the butler responding to? Is it polite? Why does he say yes rather than no?
(b) And what would the butler say if he were responding to the structural meaning of ‘Do you mind . . .?’
4. indicate whether the sentences are true or false and justify your answer
I. Pragmatically, everyone expects his or her partners in a conversation to be telling the truth.
II. In everyday social interaction people generally behave as if their expectations concerning their public self-image (face wants) will be respected.
III. An implicature is the amount of information stated in the linguistic structure.
IV. A number of conversations require little or any special contextual knowledge to help conveying meaning as, i.e., the sentence “I was sitting in a garden today”.
V. the following short dialogue is an example of no cooperative principle
(a)Do you like beer?
b) is the sky blue
VI. In everyday interaction people expect and behave as if their face wants were to be respected.
5. Create a situation that demonstrates how the face wants (positive or negative) are negotiated in an interaction. Explain your example.
6. choose one of the sentences and explain, with the help of examples, its the meaning.
(a) Implicatures are primary examples of more being communicated than is said, but in order for them to be interpreted, some basic cooperative principle must be assumed in the operation.
(b) there are, however, some circumstances where speakers may not follow the expectations of the cooperative principle.
(c) It is important to note that it is speakers who communicate meaning via implicature and it is listeners who recognize those communicated meaning via inference.